OPERATION JUST CAUSE - ARTICLES -  Gilboa                                     [p4 of 4]  


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-- Panama Canal Treaty Implementation (1979-1999)

Operation Just Cause (Dec 20, 1989 - Jan 12, 1990)

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The Panama Invasion Revisited - Gilboa (continued) 


1 David Parker, "The Panama Canal Is No Longer Crucial to U.S. Security," Armed Forces Journal 125 (December 1987): 54-60.

2 Walter LaFeber, The Panama Canal: The Crisis in Historical Perspective (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); Michael J. Hogan, The Panama Canal in American Politics: Domestic Advocacy and the Evolution of Policy (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986).

3 Susan Horwitz, "Indications and Warning Factors" in Bruce Watson and Peter Tsouras, eds. Operation Just Cause: The U.S. Intervention in Panama (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991), 49.

4 Margaret Scranton, The Noriega Years (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1991), 202.

5 Noriega created the PDF in 1983 by merging the National Guard, the police, and the immigration forces.

6 R. M. Koster and Guillermo Sanchez, In the Time of the Tyrants, Panama 1968-1990 (New York: Norton, 1990).

7 George P. Shultz, Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1993), 1052; Frederick Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator: America's Bungled Affair with Noriega (New York: G. P. Putnam's, 1990), 83; Kevin Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991), 14; Scranton, The Noriega Years, 13-14.

8 Linda Robinson, Intervention or Neglect: The United States and Central America Beyond the 1980s (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1991), 111; and Jim McGee and Bob Woodward, "Noriega Arms Indictment Stalled in '80," Washington Post, 20 March 1988.

9 Scranton, The Noriega Years, 75-77; Buckley, Panama: the Whole Story, 74.

10 Details about the operation appeared in Buckley, Panama: the Whole Story, 59-60.

11 Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator, 126-142.

12 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 27.

13 Ibid., 34.

14 Scranton, The Noriega Years, 89-91.

15 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 46.

16 Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator, 169-170.

17 David N. Miller, "Panama and U.S. Policy," Global Affairs 4 (Summer 1989): 139.

18 Seymour Hersh, "Panama Strongman Said to Trade in Drugs, Arms and Illicit Money," New York Times, 12 June 1986; Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 46. According to one source, at this meeting Poindexter may have tried to convince Noriega to train the contras in Panama. This could explain Poindexter's reluctance to deliver Noriega a tougher message. John Weeks and Andrew Zimbalist, "The Failure of Intervention in Panama: Humiliation in the Backyard," Third World Quarterly 11 (January 1989): 14.

19 John Dinges, Our Man in Panama, The Shrewd Rise and Brutal Fall of Manuel Noriega (New York: Random House, 1991), 265; Scranton, The Noriega Years, 107-108; Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator, 212.

20 Cited in Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator, 223. Also see Miller, "Panama and U.S. Policy," 140.

21 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 90.

22 Scranton, The Noriega Years, 118-119.

23 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 106-108.

24 See "Panamanian Chief Dismisses Aide Seeking Political Deal," New York Times, 19 January 1988.

25 Robinson, Intervention or Neglect, 114; Scranton, The Noriega Years, 126-127.

26 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 112.

27 Dinges, Our Man in Panama, 288; Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator, 233.

28 See Philip Shenon, "Noriega Indicted by U.S. for Links to Illegal Drugs," New York Times, 6 February 1988.

29 Shultz, Turmoil and Triumph, 1052; Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator, 250.

30 In July 1988, 27 percent of the respondents to a Gallup poll named drugs as the most important problem facing the country - greater than the percentage of respondents who cited all economic problems combined (24 percent).

31 Linda Robinson, "Dwindling Options in Panama," Foreign Affairs 68 (Winter 1989-1990): 192.

32 Cited in Scranton, The Noriega Years, 146.

33 Bill McAllister, "US Patience Not Unlimited Noriega Warned," Washington Post, 30 March 1988.

34 The statement was published without specific attribution, Peter Kilborn, "U.S. Preparing to Relax Some Panama Sanctions," New York Times, 26 April 1988. Shultz revealed that Baker made the statement in a background briefing, Turmoil and Triumph, 1057.

35 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 138-139.

36 Bob Woodward, The Commanders (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991), 84-86.

37 Interesting details about the debate between Abrams and the military were revealed more than a year later in an exchange of op-ed articles Abrams and Crow published in the New York Times, respectively on 3 and 16 October 1989.

38 Cited in Scranton, The Noriega Years, 147.

39 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 137.

40 See his criticism of a Washington Post editorial, published in the same paper on 13 August 1988.

41 See Shultz, Turmoil and Triumph, 1062-1079.

42 Joe Pichirallo, "Noriega Given Offer to Drop Drug Charges," Washington Post, 12 May 1988.

43 David Hoffman, "Bush Splits with Reagan on Handling of Noriega," Washington Post, 19 May 1988.

44 Thomas Donnelly, Margaret Roth, and Caleb Baker, Operation Just Cause, The Storming of Panama (New York: Lexington Books, 1991), 35. Also see Michael L. Conniff, Panama and the United States: The Forced Alliance (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1992), 158-159.

45 Lou Canon and Helen Dewar, "Senate Opposes Ending Noriega Case," Washington Post, 18 May 1988.

46 Helen Dewar, "Dole Warns against Dropping Noriega Case," Washington Post, 17 May 1988.

47 Shultz, Turmoil and Triumph, 1070-1079.

48 Robinson, Intervention or Neglect, 117-119; Scranton, The Noriega Years, 132-140.

49 Lou Canon, "Anti-Noriega Sanctions Are Having 'Telling Effect,'" Washington Post, 6 April 1988.

50 Robert Pear and Neil Lewis, "The Noriega Fiasco," New York Times, 30 May 1988.

51 Larry Berman and Bruce Jentleson, "Bush and the Post-Cold War: New Challenges for American Leadership" in Colin Campbell and Bert Rockman, eds. The Bush Presidency First Appraisals (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1991), 110.

52 Philip Zelikow, "The U.S. and the Use of Force: A Historical Summary" in George Osborn et al., Democracy, Strategy and Vietnam (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1987), 31-81.

53 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 139.

54 Scranton, The Noriega Years, 152-158.

55 Washington Post, 29 July 1988.

56 Shultz, Turmoil and Triumph, 1079.

57 Bill McAllister, "Bush Vows to Press Noriega," Washington Post, 23 December 1988.

58 AP Report, "Bush Directs Noriega Foes," Washington Post, 23 April 1989.

59 Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 176.

60 Scranton, The Noriega Years, 158.

61 Ibid., 161.

62 Lindsey Gruson, "Noriega Stealing Election," New York Times, 9 May 1989.

63 Woodward, The Commanders, 84.

64 Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: George Bush, 1989, Book 1 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990), 536-537.

65 Richard Halloran, "U.S. Troops to Go Slowly into Panama," New York Times, 12 May 1989.

66 For details about the coup, see Scranton, The Noriega Years, 185-192; Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 197-218; Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator, 369-397.

67 David Hoffman and Ann Devroy, "U.S. Was Caught off Guard by Coup Attempt" and Molly Moore and Joe Pichirallo, "Cheney," Washington Post, 6 October 1989.

68 David Hoffman and William Branigin, "Key Queries Never Put to Bush," Washington Post, 7 October 1989.

69 David Hoffman, "Bush Attacks Critics of Response to Coup," Washington Post, 14 October 1989.

70 Robinson, Intervention or Neglect, 126.

71 Woodward, The Commanders, 120; Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 199.

72 Donnelly, Operation Just Cause, 67.

73 Woodward, The Commanders, 121.

74 Donnelly, Operation Just Cause, 66; Scranton, The Noriega Years, 190.

75 Terry Deibel, "Bush's Foreign Policy: Mastery and Inaction," Foreign Policy 84 (Fall 1991): 19.

76 Woodward, The Commanders, 128.

77 George Bush, "National Drug Control Strategy," Vital Speeches of the Day, vol. lv, no. 24 (1989): 738-740.

78 Executive Order 12333 of the U.S. Intelligence Activities, 4 December 1981, 46 Federal Register, 59941. Also see Mark Sullivan, "Panama: U.S. Policy After the May 1989 Elections," CRS Issue Brief IB89106 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1989), 12.

79 See Scranton, The Noriega Years, 195; Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 221.

80 See, for example, the report published in the Washington Post, 17 November 1989.

81 Donnelly, Operation Just Cause, 94-97; Scranton, The Noriega Years, 198-199.

82 Woodward, The Commanders, 167-171; Donnelly, Operation Just Cause, 98-99; Buckley, Panama: The Whole Story, 228-233.

83 For sources on the Gulf War, see Laurie Mylroie, "Why Saddam Hussein Invaded Kuwait," Orbis (Winter 1993): 123-134; Woodward, The Commanders, Part Two; Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh, The Gulf Conflict, 1990-1991 (London: Faber and Faber, 1993); Joseph Nye, Jr. and Roger Smith, eds., After the Storm: Lessons from the Gulf War (Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 1992); U.S. News and World Report, Triumph Without Victory: The Unreported History of the Persian Gulf War (New York: Times Books, 1992); Stephen Graubard, Mr. Bush's War (New York: Hill and Wang, 1992); Robert Tucker and David Hendrickson, The Imperial Temptation: The New World Order and America's Purpose (New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1992); Elaine Sciolino, The Outlaw State: Saddam Hussein's Quest for Power and the Gulf Crisis (New York: John Wiley, 1991); David Scheffer, "Use of Force After the Cold War: Panama, Iraq, and the New World Order" in Louis Henkin, et al., Right versus Might: International Law and the Use of Force (New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1991), 109-172.

84 On the crisis in Bosnia, see William Pfaff, "Invitation to War," Foreign Affairs 72 (Summer 1993): 97-109; Dusko Doder, "Yugoslavia; New War, Old Hatreds," Foreign Policy 91 (Summer 1993): 3-23; Sabrina Petra Ramet, "War in the Balkans," Foreign Affairs 70 (Fall 1992): 79-98; James Goodby, "Peacekeeping in the New Europe," Washington Quarterly 15 (September 1992): 153-171.

85 On the U.S. mission in Somalia, see Henry Kissinger, "Somalia: Reservations," Washington Post, 13 December 1992; Jonathan Stevenson, "Hope Restored in Somalia?" Foreign Policy 91 (Summer 1993): 138-154; Michael Elliott, "The Making of a Fiasco," Newsweek, 18 October 1993, 8-11; George Church, "Anatomy of a Disaster," Time, 18 October 1993, 40-50.

* I would like to thank Louis Goodman and Philip Brenner of the School of International Service, The American University in Washington, DC, Andrea Barron, Liesl Scullen, Michael Leib, and Nate Persily for their assistance in the preparation of this article.


EYTAN GILBOA teaches international politics at the School of International Service, The American University, Washington, D.C. He is the author of numerous articles and books including American Public Opinion Toward Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. He is currently writing a book on American use of force since Vietnam.

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Reprinted by permission of Political Science Quarterly, 110 (1995): 539-562,  (http://www.psqonline.org ), Loren Morales, March 24, 2000  on "In Retrospect" site at http://william_ormsbee.tripod.com, which has been replaced by WHOs SCROLL at http://william_h_ormsbee.tripod.com (similar scope) in December 2006.

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